The goal is not to pocket a ball, but all. Similarly to French billiards, the goal is not to make a point, but a certain number of points The control of the movement of any marble in motion is the key. Whatever the game mode, the address is not the keyword. Of course, you have to be clever at pocketing a ball or making a particular move, but if you do not think about it, it does not lead to anything. The preliminary reflection is therefore essential, the “mechanics” of the gesture is only an extension of it.
This mechanism depends on several things, including the position of the body in relation to the billiard and the ball of attack. Everything must be done so that the directing eye is in the line of sight, that the forearm holding the barrel can have a pendulum movement on the same axis without constraint. There is really no “academic” position, the main thing being that it is stable and pleasant. The same applies to the easel, that is to say, the position of the hand placed on the billiard which must be stable and guide the arrow.
Billiards are based on very simple physical laws, the balls being perfectly spherical, the strips rectilinear and perpendicular, and the carpet supposed to oppose a constant resistance to the movement.
Knowing these principles can predict the direction taken by the ball of attack after a shock. By playing on different parameters, we can change this direction and make it more conducive to the pursuit of the goal.


The amount of ball is the term used to quantify the aim. The goal here is to have reference points, that is to say, to know the behavior in specific cases, in order to extrapolate the behavior in practice.
Consider the white ball as a ball of shock. The diagram represents what can be seen by placing the eye (director) on the line of sight, which passes through the center of gravity of the white along a vector parallel to the table. The amount of ball intrinsically expresses the ratio of energy transfer during the impact between the two balls.
Aiming “full ball” is to align the axis on the 2 centers of gravity. The mass transfer during the shock is complete, the aiming ball inheriting all the force.
Aiming “3/4 ball” is to align the center of the ball of shock with a point located at half the radius of the ball of aiming. She inherits 3/4 strength, 1/4 remaining white.
Aiming “1/2 ball” aligns the line of sight on the tangent of the target ball. The transfer is equivalent. Aiming “1/4 ball” amounts to aligning the center of the ball of shock with a point located outside the ball of sight, at a distance of half a radius. The ratio is 1/4 for aiming, 3/4 for shock ball.
Aiming “Finesse” aligns the center of the impact ball with a point on the outside of the aiming ball at a distance from a ray (in practice a little less to ensure contact). Only a small amount of force is transmitted to the aiming ball.


Let’s apply a force to the ball of shock, theoretically allowing it to travel a meter. When aiming the full ball, the ball of shock stops and the ball of sight travel one meter. By aiming the half ball, the two balls should travel every 50 centimeters, etc.


The ball is set in motion by the contact with the process. Changing the point of contact induces a rotation of the ball.
Hitting the ball outside the yellow area is risky and unnecessary. The process may slide on the ball, completely changing the trajectory, and usually causing a game foul In order to avoid this, the player applies on the process of chalk, more commonly called “blue”. It is a powder packaged in a cube that increases the adhesion of the process when it comes in contact with the ball of shock. Without the use of chalk, manipulation of the effects would be impossible.
Striking in the center is said to have no effect; To strike underline L2 gives a retro effect contrary to the movement of the ball; Knocking above line L2 gives a cast, which is favorable for movement; Knocking left or right of line L1 induces a side effect.
It is important to note that the force of the blow comes into play. The effect opposes the resistance of the carpet, and therefore gradually loses power. We can also consider a shot at the center of weak power as a light cast, the ball taking a natural effect due to its movement. On the other hand, if the blow is strong, the blow is indeed without effect since the ball does not turn on itself, but slips on the carpet.
The tail stroke is essential and must be adapted. This term includes the power of the blow, the horizontality of the tail, the accompaniment or not of the movement, the fluidity of the gesture, etc. A “penetrating” shot is usually preferable to a sudden blow, it makes it possible to obtain a better performance between the printed effect and the speed of the ball.
In general, the use of effect complicates things, since we add a factor to the equation. When this is not necessary, it is best to avoid it based on the following principles.
Natural burst The resultant of the shock between two balls is called “bursting”. Theoretically, a natural shock (without effect) modifies the trajectory of the ball of attack and induces a trajectory to the target ball such that their directions form an angle of 90 °.
This 90 ° angle can be modified by the effects. A retro effect gives a reverse rotation to the direction of travel. The ball has a tendency to return to itself. This effect increases the burst angle. The casting gives a rotation in the direction of the displacement, the ball thus tends to continue on its initial trajectory after the shock. This effect decreases the burst angle. Lateral effects have no impact on bursting, except in some extreme cases.
Note that it is always the trajectory of the ball that is modified by these effects, that of the ball is defined only by the point of impact.


By playing without lateral effect, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. Lateral effects change the angle of reflection. Retro and cast have no direct influence.


Consider a simple shock: if we apply a retro effect or cast (see previous chapters), we change the distance traveled by the white after the shock and its direction, but neither the distance traveled by the target ball nor its direction ;
the lower the amount of ball, the less the retro and cast influence the direction of the ball shock. It takes “support” for these effects to be effective. If we consider a mass transfer, it makes perfect sense. The effect goes against the movement of the ball, so the lower the original movement, the greater the change. Excluding a small amount of ball leaves a lot of force to the ball of shock.


The previous remark can be transposed to side effects after a shock to the band. The higher the angle of incidence, the less the support on the band is frank, and therefore the effective effect.


During any change of trajectory, a ball tends to take a natural effect due in large part to the resistance to movement of the sheet. It’s pretty trivial, the ball being spherical. This behavior can easily be seen on several successive bands.
Any effect of the shock ball induces an opposite effect on the aiming ball, following the principle of the gearing. If the aiming ball touches a band after the initial burst, its natural trajectory can be changed. Of course, the “losses” due to the different shocks and the resistance of the sheet are important.


It is found that if the basic principles are very simple, the practice can become very complex as the parameters are numerous. Add to this the material factors, for example, the differences in sheet strength, the elasticity of the bands, the potential impurities that can deviate a trajectory and so on. One quickly imagines the mastery necessary to the informed players, and understands the material requirements of the champions, as in any sport.
These principles are independent of the game mode, their knowledge is useful to all.
However, their application can vary from one pool to another, mainly because of the equipment. The sheet of snooker is not the same type as that of a French billiard, the heating of a billiard influence the bearing and the taking of the effects, the quality of the bands, even balls.
The benchmarks for strength and effects, therefore, vary from table to table, even for billiards of the same size, make and model. It is necessary to adapt his game accordingly.


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